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Department of Environmental Studies

Flora & Fauna

scarlet hibiscus

blue flag iriswater lilycoreopsis

Native species are generally defined as those species that are indigenous to or naturally occurring in a particular geographic region, ecosystem or habitat without human assistance or intervention. The Florida Department of Environmental Protection further designates native species as ones that “occurred in Florida at the time of European contact or 1500s.” This period marks a significant change to the Florida landscape with both the removal of many native habitats for settlement purposes and the introduction of species from Europe and elsewhere around the world. Although this delineation is considered arbitrary by many, and while this definition has remained somewhat controversial, it is generally agreed upon by most Florida botanists.

Native plants are better suited for the ecological conditions of their particular habitats than non-nativespecies. They fill ecological niches such as food sources and shelter for particular organisms. Over time, native species have evolved mechanisms that help them survive the harsh conditions of Florida’s environment such as hurricane-force winds and rain, sustained periods of drought and seasonal climate fluctuations. These conditions also act as natural controls that may instigate succession, maintain plant populations within the habitat and allow other habitat-specific plants to flourish. Other natural controls include healthy competition with other native plants, native (naturally-occurring) diseases and predatory insects and animals. Natural controls help maintain a balance among native species and allow for more diversity in both the flora and fauna that utilize them.


An exotic plant is defined as one that has been either intentionally or accidentally introduced to an area outside of its native range. They can occur as all habits of plants — as trees, shrubs, grasses, ferns and vines. Exotic species can be further categorized as invasive exotics and naturalized exotics. 

Invasive exotics not only survive outside their native range, their populations tend to expand aggressively due to the absence of natural controls. This can eventually displace or eliminate native plant communities and result in a monoculture of the invasive plant species. Invasive exotic plants tend to impair the quality and usefulness of the habitat to wildlife; they contribute to the destruction of biodiversity. Invasive exotics do not fill the same ecological niche as the native plants they displace, thus those species of both plant and animal that rely on the native plants do not gain the same benefit from the invasive exotics and often must relocate as a result. The number of plant species that exist in Florida is estimated at approximately 4,000; of those, 1,000 are considered exotic and over 100 are considered invasive.

Several of the invasive exotics that have become problematic to the Preserve were initially brought in for their ornamental value. These include earpod and Chinaberry trees. Over time, and without human control, these trees began to spread and infringe upon other native species. Intense removal of these trees has been applied on the Preserve. While seedlings still sprout up (and are subsequently removed when spotted), the overall population of earpod and Chinaberry trees has largely been eradicated on the Preserve.

Naturalized exotics refer to species with an ability to survive outside of their native range without human cultivation. They differ from invasive exotics in that they do not typically interfere with the ability of neighboring species to thrive.

Naturalized also refers to those plants that have become a part of the native landscape. Turk’s cap, which is historically present on the Preserve, is considered naturalized in some parts of Florida.

Sometimes native species can exhibit invasive behavior. Often, a natural or human-induced disturbance—one that drastically changes the structure of the natural environment such as a hurricane or construction activity—can cause a plant to become aggressive in its growth. Cattail, which is found in the littoral zones of all three of the Genius Preserve lakes, is widely considered a native invasive due to its tendency to out-compete other species and establish itself as a monoculture under certain circumstances. Cattail can be managed, however, and it has not yet become problematic on the Preserve lakeshores.

Exotic Flora List

rosary pea (Abrus precatorius) (FLEPPC Cat. I Invasive)
giant taro (Alocasia macrorrhiza)           
shell ginger (Alpinia zerumbet)           
spiny amaranth (Amaranthus spinosus)           
scarlet milkweed (Asclepias curassavica)           
asparagus fern (Asparagus aethiopicus) (FLEPPC Cat. I Invasive)
starfruit (Averrhoa carambola)           
crested phillipine violet (Barleria cristata)           
orchid tree (Bauhinia variegata) (FLEPPC Cat. I Invasive)
bougainvillea (Bougainvillea spectabilis)           
paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera) (FLEPPC Cat. II Invasive)
angel's trumpet (Brugmansia suaveolens)
weeping bottlebrush (Callistemon viminalis)           
camellia (Camellia japonica)* 
canna (Canna indica)           
nightflowering jessamine (Cestrum nocturnum)           
Mexican tea (Chenopodium ambrosiodes)           
camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) (FLEPPC Cat. I Invasive)
citrus (Citrus sp.)           
bleeding heart vine (Clerodendrum thomsoniae (or C. spp.))           
wild taro (Colocasia esculenta) (FLEPPC Cat. I Invasive)
dayflower (Commelina diffusa)           
goldenmane tickseed (Coreopsis basalis)           
redflower ragleaf (Crassocephalum crepidioides)
Colombian waxweed (Cuphea carthagenensis (Cuphea hyssopifola))           
marsh parsley (Cyclospermum leptophyllum)           
air potato (Dioscorea bulbifera) (FLEPPC Cat. I Invasive)
tropical chickweed (Drymeria chordata)           
jungle rice (Echinochloa colona)           
water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) (FLEPPC Cat. I Invasive)
Florida tasselflower (Emilia fosbergii)           
earpod tree (Enterolobium contortisiliquum)           
Japanese plum (loquat) (Eryobotrya japonica)           
Surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora) (FLEPPC Cat. I Invasive)
earthsmoke (Fumaria officinalis L.)           
Pennsylvania cudweed (Gamochaeta pensylvanica)           
gardenia (Gardenia augusta)           
silk oak (Grevillea robusta)
white gingerlily (Hedychium coronarium)heliconia (Heliconia sp.)           
hibiscus (Hibiscus sp.)           
cypressvine (Ipomoea quamoclit)
jacaranda (Jacaranda mimosifolia)
star jasmine (Jasminum multiflorum)
Arabian jasmine (Jasminum sambac) (FLEPPC Cat. II Invasive)
glossy privet (Ligustrum lucidum) (FLEPPC Cat. I Invasive)
Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense) (FLEPPC Cat. I Invasive)
Chinese fan palm (Livistona chinensis)           
Peruvian primrosewillow (Ludwigia peruviana) (FLEPPC Cat. I Invasive)
cat's claw vine (Macfadyena unguis-cati) (FLEPPC Cat. I Invasive)
wild bushbean (Macroptilium lathyroides)
turk's cap (Malvaviscus arboreus)            
mango (Mangifera indicia)
melaleuca (Melaleuca quinquenervia) (FLEPPC Cat. I Invasive)
Chinaberry tree (Melia azedarach) (FLEPPC Cat. II Invasive)
rose natalgrass (Melinis repens)           
alamo vine (Merremia dissecta)           
four o'clock (Mirabilis jalapa)           
wild balsam apple (Momordica charantia)
latexplant (Morrenia odorata)           
banana tree (Musa acuminata)           
tuberous sword fern (Nephrolepis cordifolia) (FLEPPC Cat. I Invasive)
firespike (Odontonema strictum)           
pink woodsorrel (Oxalis debilis)           
skunk vine (Paederia foetida) (FLEPPC Cat. I Invasive)
guinea grass (Panicum maximum) (FLEPPC Cat. II Invasive)
torpedo grass (Panicum repens) (FLEPPC Cat. I Invasive)
pentas (star flower) (Pentas lanceolata)           
petunia (Petunia x hybrida)           
Mascarene Island leafflower (Phyllanthus tenellus)           
yew pine (Podocarpus macrophyllus)           
flame vine (Pyrostegia venusta)           
Formosa azalea (Rhodendron simsii)
Mexican clover (Richardia brasiliensis)           
castorbean (Ricinus communis) (FLEPPC Cat. II Invasive)
Cherokee rose (Rosa laevigata)           
rose (Rosa sp.)
blechum (Ruellia blechum)           
weeping willow (Salix babylonica)
bowstring hemp (Sansevieria hyacinthoides) (FLEPPC Cat. II Invasive)
Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolia) (FLEPPC Cat. I Invasive)
Mexican flame vine (Senecio confusus) (Pseudogynoxys chenopodioides)           
climbing nightshade (Solanum dulcamara)
Brazilian nightshade (Solanum seaforthianum)            
tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum) (FLEPPC Cat. I Invasive)
spiny sowthistle (Sonchus asper)           
common sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus)           
Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense)           
creeping oxeye (Sphagneticola trilobata) (formerly Wedelia trilobata) (FLEPPC Cat. II Invasive)
common chickweed (Stellaria meia)
bird of paradise (Strelitzia reginae)           
queen palm (Syagrus romanzoffiana)           
arrowhead vine (Syngonium podophyllum) (FLEPPC Cat. I Invasive)
tabebuia (Tabebuia heterophylla)           
caesarweed (Urena lobata) (FLEPPC Cat. II Invasive)
cockleburr (Xanthium strumarium)           
Oriental false hawksbeard (Youngia japonica)           
cardboard palm (Zamia furfuracea)           
pinecone ginger (Zingiber ottensii)
lantana (Lantana camara) (FLEPPC Cat. I Invasive)


Not all exotic species are considered invasive; some were introduced specifically for ornamental purposes. If these plants are properly maintained, the risk they might otherwise impose on native plant communities can be significantly reduced or even eliminated. Some of the ornamentals used on the Preserve are considered benign; this means that they do not typically spread on their own or cause problems for native species. Others will not succeed at all without human maintenance. 

There are many ornamental exotics in use on the Genius Preserve. Genius Drive is lined with an array of showy and aromatic flowering trees and shrubs originally planted by Charles Morse. He wanted to incorporate a variety of colors and fragrances to enhance the natural beauty of the oak hammock. The most prominent historic ornamentals are shell ginger, Formosa azalea and turk’s cap. Unfortunately, turk’s cap requires human intervention to keep its population in check. As a result of several years of neglect, turk’s cap became problematic in areas of the Preserve. Much has subsequently been removed, and the remaining stands are being managed.

Other ornamental exotics, including lantana, camellia and a variety of roses, were planted to adorn the Wind Song house when it was built in 1936. More recently, the creation of a buffer along the northern edge of the Wind Song lawn included gardenia; its showy white blossoms emit a sweet, perfumed fragrance that would waft through the warm Florida breeze and into the house. Other ornamentals used historically or in recent restorations include orchid tree, tabebuia and bird of paradise.

In addition to these flowering ornamental species, many non-native fruiting plants were cultivated on the Preserve, including banana, Japanese plum, Surinam cherry and several types of citrus.

The Genius Preserve is active with myriad species of animal despite the limiting factor of its small size. The Preserve functions as primary habitat for several small species of animal and as an ecological Stepping Stone for migrating and moving species. The lakeshores provide habitat for aquatic mammals as well as many wading birds. Mammals identified on the preserve include nine-banded armadillos, gray squirrels, raccoons, marsh rabbits and river otters, who most likely nest along the lakeshore. A family of red foxes—including four kits born in the spring of 2006—inhabit the remnant citrus grove.

Many reptiles have been sighted on the Preserve and lakeshores: American alligators, common cooters, Florida softshell turtles, black racers, yellow rat snakes, Eastern garter snakes, cottonmouth snakes, and a variety of lizards. There is also a gopher tortoise population on the Preserve; at least three active burrows have been identified, indicating that other burrowing animals might also be present.

RED FOX (Vulpes vulpes)

size at maturity The red fox typically reaches a length of about 3 feet from nose to tail and weighs only about 10 to 15 pounds.

habitat The habitat of the red fox varies; they prefer open areas of oak habitat as well as neglected or abandoned citrus groves. The den is usually between 20 and 40 feet long and is used primarily for breeding. Sometimes the fox will take over an abandoned burrow from another animal such as an armadillo, but the fox will add tunnels and exits to make it easier to thwart a predator if necessary. Once the breeding season ends (usually in late August), the den is abandoned until the following breeding season.

diet The red fox subsists mainly on a diet of small mammals, however, they will also eat birds, reptiles, amphibians, insects and fruits. Red foxes are predators, however, they are also opportunistic and will eat whatever is available.

description The red fox’s back and top of head are rusty; the underparts are white, as are the neck, throat and the tip of the tail. The ears are distinctly pointed and outlined in black. The feet and front legs are also typically black. The coat is very fluffy, giving the fox the appearance of being much heavier.

Red foxes are solitary creatures, however they tend to mate with the same partner for life, returning to the same den for each breeding season. They are difficult animals to observe in the wild as they are shy, cautious and nocturnal, resting during the day and prowling for food at dusk, dawn or throughout the night.

NORTHERN RIVER OTTER (Lutra canadensis)

size at maturity Male river otters typically grow to about 4 feet in length from nose to tail, and weigh up to 40 pounds; the female otter is slightly smaller.

habitat River otters live along clean, forested rivers and lakes. They create permanent nests in banks with entrances aboveground and underwater.

diet River otters eats a variety of aquatic and terrestrial organisms including fish, crustaceans, amphibians, small reptiles, birds, insects and occasionally small mammals.

description River otters have thick dark brown to blackish fur; their bellies are lighter—usually yellowish, but also can be silvery or grayish brown. The tail is long and pointed at the tip. They are mammals, however, much of their life is spent in the water. They have special adaptations—a streamlined body, webbed feet, a rudder-like tail, eyes and ears that form a seal to keep out water, and the ability to hold their breath for up to four minutes—that allow them to thrive in the aquatic environment. They are also proficient divers and swimmers; the young are borne on land and therefore must be taught to swim by their mothers. River otters are often seen swimming or floating with their heads upright and above water. They are known for their engaging playfulness.

GOPHER TORTOISE (Gopherus polyphemus) 

size at maturity On average, the gopher tortoise reaches about 12 to 24 inches in length, with a width of about half the length.

habitat The gopher tortoise is a terrestrial tortoise, preferring to excavate burrows in sunny areas of well-drained, sandy soils where the water table is not an issue. These burrows offer the tortoises a place to sleep, hibernate and remain protected from predators and harsh weather. The burrows extend up to 20 feet down and 40 feet long. Active burrows are elliptically shaped with an apron clear of debris; often, there are visible tracks going into the entrance. Abandoned burrows are usually covered with debris such as leaves and twigs and are sometimes caved in. Inactive burrows have an appearance somewhere in between active and abandoned, depending on how recent the gopher tortoise residence. The gopher tortoise typically lays its eggs in a hole within the burrow, but sometimes will lay its eggs away from the burrow or deep within.

diet Gopher tortoises mainly eat low-growing vegetation such as wiregrass, gopher apple and soft-leaved forbs; they also prefer prickly pear cactus, saw palmetto berries and other fruits and have been known to eat insects as well.

description The carapace of the mature gopher tortoise shell is grayish to light brown and elliptical to oval with grooved geometric rings. The plastron is flat and pale yellow. Their front legs are flat like shovels, but their hind legs are short, round and stocky. Gopher tortoises can live to an age of over 60 years.

The gopher tortoise is considered a keystone species because so many other animals utilize its burrows. It is estimated that between 250 and 350 species of animal utilize the burrows in addition to the tortoise; some actually share the burrow with the tortoise while others move into abandoned burrows. Gopher tortoises are also helpful in disseminating seeds through their excrement.

Other fauna identified on the Genius Preserve


Cuban tree frog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) 

green tree frog (Hyla cinerea)

pig frog (Lithobates grylio)

slimy salamander (Plethodon glutinosus)


nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus)

gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis)

marsh rabbit (Sylvilagus palustris)

raccoon (Procyon lotor)

Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana)


American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis)

black racer (Coluber constrictor)

common cooter (Pseudemys (Chrysemys) floridana)

cottonmouth snake (Agkistrodon piscivorus)

Eastern coral snake (Micrurus fulvius)

Eastern garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis)

Florida soft-shelled turtle (Trionyx ferox)

ground skink (Scincella lateralis) 

green anole (Anolis carolinensis) 

ringneck snake (Diadophis punctatus) 

rough green snake (Opheodrys aestivus) 

yellow rat snake (Elaphe obsoleta)

The number and variety of birds that utilize the Genius Preserve is extensive. Predatory birds such as the Bald Eagle, Red-shouldered Hawk, Red-tailed Hawk, Osprey and Barred Owl regularly perch in tall trees and snags, scanning the Preserve for prey. Wading and diving birds including the Great Blue Heron, Great Egret, Anhinga, Double-crested Cormorant, White Ibis and Limpkin use the littoral habitat for feeding and several species use it for nesting. Other permanent residents on the Preserve include the Carolina Wren, Northern Mockingbird, Blue Jay, Fish Crow, Northern Cardinal, Red-winged Blackbird, Common Grackle and three types of woodpeckers — Pileated, Red-bellied and Downy. Migratory birds like the Gray Catbird, Cedar Waxwing, Indigo Bunting and American Redstart also utilize the Preserve for food or temporary shelter.

Since September 2007, the Orange Audubon Society has been conducting monthly bird surveys to establish a baseline inventory of year-round and migratory birds that utilize the Preserve for breeding and/or foraging habitat. The data collected will provide another important measure of the success of the ecological restoration effort. The species identified thus far are listed below and are updated monthly.

Genius Preserve Bird List 

Ducks, Geese & Swans
____ Fulvous Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygnus bicolor)
____ *Wood Duck (Aix sponsa)
____ Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) - INTRODUCED
____ Mottled Duck (Anas fulvigula)
____ Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors)
____ Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata)
____ Ring-necked Duck (Aythya collaris)
____ Greater Scaup (Aythya marila)
____ Hooded Merganser (Mergus cucullatus)
____ Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis)

Partridges, Grouse, Turkeys & Old World Quail
____ *Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus) - INTRODUCED
____ Green Peafowl (Pavo muticus) - INTRODUCED

____ Common Loon (Gavia immer)

____*Pied-billed Grebe (Podilymbus podiceps)
____ Horned Grebe (Podiceps auritus)

____ Leach’s Storm-Petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa)

____ Wood Stork (Mycteria americana)

____ Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus)

____ *Anhinga (Anhinga anhinga)

____ American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos)
____ Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis)

Herons, Bitterns & Allies
____ American Bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus)
____*Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias)
____ Great Egret (Ardea alba)
____ Snowy Egret (Egretta thula)
____ Little Blue Heron (Egretta caerulea)
____ Tricolored Heron (Egretta tricolor)
____ Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis)
____ *Green Heron (Butorides virescens)
____ Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax

Ibises & Spoonbills
____ White Ibis (Eudocimus albus)
____ Glossy Ibis (Plegadis falcinellus
____ Roseate Spoonbill (Platalea ajaja)

New World Vultures
____ Black Vulture (Coragyps atratus)
____ Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura)

____ *Osprey (Pandion haliaetus

Hawks, Kites, Eagles & Allies
____ Swallow-tailed Kite (Elanoides forficatus)
____ Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)
____ Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus)
____ Sharp-shinned Hawk (Accipiter striatus)
____ Cooper’s Hawk (Accipiter cooperii)
____ Red-shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus)
____ Swainson's Hawk (Buteo swainsoni)
____ *Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis)

Rails, Gallinules & Coots
____ *Common Gallinule (Gallinula galeata)
____ American Coot (Fulica americana

____ Limpkin (Aramus guarauna)

____ Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis)

Lapwings & Plovers
____ Killdeer (Charadrius vociferus

Sandpipers, Phalaropes & Allies
____ Spotted Sandpiper (Actitis macularius)
____ Calidris sp.
____ Long-billed Dowitcher (Limnodramus scolopaceus)

Gulls & Terns
____ Bonaparte’s Gull (Chroicocephalus philadelphia)
____ Laughing Gull (Leucophaeus atricilla)
____ Ring-billed Gull (Larus delawarensis)
____ Herring Gull (Larus argentatus)
____ Least Tern (Sternula antillarum)
____ Gull-billed Tern (Gelochelidon nilotica)
____ Caspian Tern (Hydroprogne caspia)
____ Forster’s Tern (Sterna forsteri)
____ Black Skimmer (Rynchops niger)

Pigeons & Doves
____ Rock Pigeon (Columba livia)
____ Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto)
____ White-winged Dove (Zenaida asiatica)
____ *Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura)
____ Common Ground-Dove (Columbina passerina

Cuckoos, Roadrunners & Anis
____ Yellow-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus)
____ Black-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus erythropthalmus)

Barn Owls
____ Barn Owl (Tyto alba)

Typical Owls
____ Eastern Screech-Owl (Megascops asio)
____ *Barred Owl (Strix varia)

____ Common Nighthawk (Chordeiles minor)
____ Chuck-will’s-widow (Antrostomus carolinensis)
____ Eastern Whip-poor-will (Antrostomus vociferus)

____ *Chimney Swift (Chaetura pelagica)

____ Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Archilochus colubris)
____ Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus)

____ Belted Kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon)

Woodpeckers & Allies
____ Red-headed Woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus)
____ *Red-bellied Woodpecker (Melanerpes carolinus)
____ Yellow-bellied Sapsucker (Sphyrapicus varius)
____ *Downy Woodpecker (Picoides pubescens)
____ Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus)
____ *Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus)

Caracaras & Falcons
____ American Kestrel (Falco sparverius)
____ Merlin (Falco columbarius)
____ Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus

Lories, Parakeets, Macaws & Parrots
____ Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) - ESCAPEE 

Tyrant Flycatchers
____ Eastern Wood-Pewee (Contopus virens)
____ Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens)
____ Least Flycatcher (Empidonax minimus)
____ Eastern Phoebe (Sayornis phoebe)
____ *Great Crested Flycatcher (Myiarchus crinitus)
____ Eastern Kingbird (Tyrannus tyrannus)

____ *Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus)

____ White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus)
____ Bell's Vireo (Vireo bellii)
____ *Yellow-throated Vireo (Vireo flavifrons)
____ Blue-headed Vireo (Vireo solitarius)
____ Philadelphia Vireo (Vireo philadelphicus)
____ Red-eyed Vireo (Vireo olivaceus)

Crows & Jays
____ *Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata)
____ American Crow (Corvus brachyrhrynchos)
____ Fish Crow (Corvus ossifragus)

____ Purple Martin (Progne subis)
____ Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor)
____ Northern Rough-winged Swallow (Stelgidopteryx serripennis)
____ Bank Swallow (Riparia riparea)
____ Cliff Swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota)
____ Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica)

Chickadees & Titmice
____*Tufted Titmouse (Baeolophus bicolor)

____ *Carolina Wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus)
____ House Wren (Troglodytes aedon)
____ Sedge Wren (Cistothorus platensis)

____ *Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea)

____ Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula)

____ Townsend’s Solitaire (Myadestes townsendi)
____ Veery (Catharus fuscescens)
____ Gray-cheeked Thrush (Catharus minimus)
____ Swainson’s Thrush (Catharus ustulatus)
____ Hermit Thrush (Catharus guttatus)
____ Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina)
____ American Robin (Turdus migratorius)

Mockingbirds & Thrashers
____ Gray Catbird (Dumetella carolinensis)
____ *Northern Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos)
____ *Brown Thrasher (Toxostoma rufum)

____ European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris)

____ Cedar Waxwing (Bombycilla cedrorum)

____ Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla)
____ Worm-eating Warbler (Helmitheros vermivorum)
____ Northern Waterthrush (Parkesia noveboracensis)
____ Blue-winged Warbler (Vermivora cyanoptera)
____ Black-and-white Warbler (Mniotilta varia)
____ Prothonotary Warbler (Protonotaria citrea)
____ Swainson’s Warbler (Limnothlypis swainsonii)
____ Tennessee Warbler (Oreothlypis peregrina)
____ Orange-crowned Warbler (Oreothlypis celata)
____ Nashville Warbler (Oreothlypis ruficapilla)
____ Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas)
____ Hooded Warbler (Setophaga citrina)
____ American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla)
____ Cape May Warbler (Setophaga tigrina)
____*Northern Parula (Setophaga americana)
____ Magnolia Warbler (Setophaga magnolia)
____ Bay-breasted Warbler (Setophaga castanea)
____ Blackburnian Warbler (Setophaga fusca)
____ Yellow Warbler (Setophaga petechia)
____ Chestnut-sided Warbler (Setophaga pensylvanica)
____ Blackpoll Warbler (Setophaga striata)
____ Black-throated Blue Warbler (Setophaga caerulescens)
____ Palm Warbler (Setophaga palmarum)
____ Pine Warbler (Setophaga pinus)
____ Yellow-rumped Warbler (Setophaga coronata)
____ Yellow-throated Warbler (Setophaga dominica)
____ Prairie Warbler (Setophaga discolor)
____ Black-throated Green Warbler (Setophaga virens)
____ Wilson's Warbler (Cardellina pusilla)

____ Cuban Grassquit (Tiaris canorus) - PROBABLE ESCAPE
____ Eastern Towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus)
____ Chipping Sparrow (Spizella passerina)
____ Swamp Sparrow (Melospiza georgiana)

Cardinals & Allies
____ Summer Tanager (Piranga rubra)
____ Scarlet Tanager (Piranga olivacea)
____ Western Tanager (Piranga ludoviciana)
____ *Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis)
____ Rose-breasted Grosbeak (Pheucticus ludovicianus)
____ Blue Grosbeak (Passerina caerulea)
____ Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea)
____ Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris)

____ Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus)
____ *Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus)
____ *Common Grackle (Quiscalus quiscula)
____ *Boat-tailed Grackle (Quiscalus major)
____ Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater)
____ Orchard Oriole (Icterus spurius)
____ Baltimore Oriole (Icterus galbula)

Fringilline & Cardueline Finches & Allies
____ *House Finch (Haemorhous mexicanus)
____ American Goldfinch (Spinus tristis)

* Indicates nesting species

COMPILED BY: BHAnderson, Brooks & Lyn Atherton, Jocelyn Baker, Andy Bankert, Greg Bretz, Cecie Catron, Susan Epps, Dot Freeman, Murray Gardler, Claire Hilliker, Bonnie Hubbard, Paul Hueber, Joyce Judefind, Cyndi Kay, Helen Lovell, Lorne Malo, Stacey Matrazzo, Craig Mazer, Becky Payne, Cheri Pierce, Bill Pranty, Nancy Prine, Julie Pringle, Dexter Richardson, Ellen Rocco, Tom Rodriguez, Bob Sicolo, Bruce Stephenson, Eugene Stoccardo, Leesa Sward, Larry & Barbara Taylor, Renee Taylor, Alex Vinokur, Teresa Williams.