Then and Now

Bush Science Center

by Laura J. Cole ’04 ’08MLS

“Space Voyagers”

By Dr. Werner von Braun

Florida is the base from which voyagers leave the earth on the most fantastic explorations of all time - journeys into space. Jules Verne selected Florida as the launch site for his fictional trip to the moon more than 100 years ago. It was Jules Verne himself who once said, “Anything one man can imagine, other men can make real.”

Two months ago three astronauts rode the thrust of a Saturn V rocket from the coastline of Florida to begin the Apollo 8 mission that took them into lunar orbit and safely back to earth. And before the end of 1969 American astronauts will set foot on the moon, achieving the national goal that was set forth by President John F. Kennedy in a message to the congress on May 25, 1961. The objective: to go to the moon and return safely to earth within this decade.

President Harry Truman signed the legislation for making Cape Canaveral a test site on May 11, 1949, almost twenty years ago. I have been coming to Florida regularly since shortly there-after. It has been my good fortune to share in the growth of the U.S. ballistic missile and space vehicle programs from the early days of uncertain launchings of primitive rockets to the present, when an extremely complex space vehicle lifts off the pad with split second precision. The science of rocketry has advanced so much during the past two decades that a malfunction today is almost as rare as success was in the beginning.

Many of the launchings of the past stand out vividly in my memory. The first launch from Cape Canaveral came on July 24, 1950. A V-2 missile, with an Army Wac Corporal missile as a second stage, sped 200 miles down the Atlantic, blazing the way for approximately 2,000 ballistic missiles and space boosters to follow.

The first Army Redstone was launched from the Cape on August 20, 1953, and our development team began work on the Jupiter Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile.

Sputnik I flashed across the Americas on October 4, 1957, to usher in in the Space Age.

And on January 31, 1958, Explorer I propelled the United States into space. The orbiting of a satellite reflected a scientific and technological capability with far-reaching economic and political implications.

Rollins College, it should be noted, was among the first institutions to recognize the significance of this achievement, and to honor some of the men who made it possible.

With the launching of Explorer I the United States embarked on a Broad program of space exploration, and the results have been nothing less than fantastic. I deeply appreciate the opportunity to discuss NASA’s current space efforts and its hopes for the future with you at this time. The year 1969 will be recorded in history as the year that men landed on the moon. It is also a year of crucial decision regarding the future of our space efforts.

NASA’s proposed budget for the next fiscal year is now before Congress. Briefly, it has been called a “holding” budget. It provides for the continuation of projects now in progress, but defers critical new-start programs and funding decisions to the new Administration of President Richard M. Nixon if the proposed budget is approved by Congress sustainably as presented, it would halt a four-year downward trend in the funding of NASA. It is a Spartan budget, permitting a balanced program of useful work in a number of worthwhile areas, but it does not make full use of the aerospace capacities that this country has developed within the government, in industry, and in universities. Early decisions are required I the manned spaceflight program regarding further lunar exploration and the development of future space stations. The time is also ripe for consideration of an unmanned exploration in the late seventies to the outer planets - Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.

The space program has flowered under the strong leadership and imagination of every President who has occupied the White House since space came to the forefront.

President Dwight d. Eisenhower started the chain of events that are lifting us toward the stars in July 1955, when he announced this nation’s goal of launching an earth-orbiting satellite for scientific purposes, as part of our participation in the International Geophysical year.

President John F. Kennedy set the goal that created project Apollo, which stirred the imagination of the American people, and is testing every tendon and muscle of our national capability in science and technology.

As a Senator, Lyndon B. Johnson helped write and sponsored the National Space Act of 1958 that created NASA, the civilian space agency. As Vice President and Chairman of the national Space Council, he helped select the lunar landing as a national goal. And as President he said: “We expect to explore the moon - not just visit it or photograph it. We plan to explore and chart planets as well.”

I fully expect that president Nixon will be as strong a champion of space as his predecessors, for history will duly record that it was during his administration that man for the first time set foot on another heavenly body.

And I hope that the members of Congress will continue their bipartisan support especially the members of the Appropriation Committees.

During his Inaugural Address, President Nixon referred several times to space. He cited the thrilling discovery of new horizons, on earth as well as in space. He issued a strong call for exploring new worlds together, not conquering, but starting a new adventure. And he quoted Archibald MacLeish’s reflections on the view which the Apollo 8 astronauts had of earth from lunar orbit:

“To see the earth as it truly is, small and blue and beautiful in that eternal silence where it floats, is to see ourselves as riders on the earth together, brothers on the bright loveliness in the eternal cold - brothers who know now they are truly brothers.”

President Nixon has appointed Dr. Lee Alvin Dubridge, for twenty-two years president of the California Institute of Technology as his scientific advisor. Dr. Dubridge has been intimately connected with the space program since its inception. As a physicist he has firmly endorsed the scientific value of space exploration. He also appreciates the role of manned space flight.

Dr. Dubridge he said: “When man enters the picture, the first effect is that cost get larger, because you must transport not only man but his food and survival equipment, and you must also make provision for him to return safely.” This of course greatly increases the cost, however as the technology of the spacecraft improves, and our instruments need to get more complex, heavier, or longer lasting, there may very well be a time when putting a man up will actually be cheaper than trying to use automated instruments.

At president Nixon’s suggestion Dr. Dubridge‘s new office will undertake a new study of the space program, together with NASA and the Department of Defense, to chart a course for the next ten years. The administration's goal seems to be to develop a balanced program within the bounds of what the nation’s pocketbook can afford.

The state of the nation’s economy has an important bearing on the future of the space program. It is also true that space exploration, by its direct and indirect contributions to the progress of the economy and our society, influences the prosperity of our country. A NASA annual budget of four billion dollars is considerably less than one half of one percent of the Gross National Product. And it is less than two percent of the proposed federal budget now under consideration by the Congress. The impact of space exploration upon our society is far greater than this relatively small investment would indicate, however, because of advances in science and technology which it produces. The Apollo * flight into lunar orbit in December has renewed the world’s confidence in the strength and vitality of the United States as a technological leader. The television broadcast by the three astronauts from lunar orbit on Christmas Eve was carried immediately through communication satellites to viewers in 64 countries, totaling an estimated 600 to 800 million people.

NASA’s unmanned deep-space probes and earth satellites have yielded rich returns in new scientific knowledge of the earth, its atmosphere, the moon, interplanetary space, the sun and other planets. These instruments have also blazed a path which man is following.

The Mariner IV mission to Mars in 1965 gave us 21 of the most remarkable scientific photographs of this age. The spacecraft passed within 6,000 miles of the surface of Mars.It took nine days to relay the pictures back to earth, bit by bit. They showed the surface of Mars to be very much like the surface of the Moon.

Opportunities to launch spacecraft to mars come every two years, and a two-month launch window opened the middle of February. Capitalizing on this opportunity\, NASA plans to launch a spacecraft to mars tomorrow and another one on March 24, on flyby missions to Mars.

May I have the first slide, please?

Slide 1 – Mariner Spacecraft

This is a photograph similar to the Mariner spacecraft that is now atop an Atlas- Centaur rocket at Cape Kennedy in preparation for launch tomorrow. Although they are launched one month apart, the two spacecraft are scheduled to arrive at Mars within one week of each other, the first one arriving July 31 and the second on August 5, One Spacecraft will make equatorial pass over Mars and the other a polar pass over the planet’s surface to provide data as different as possible from the standpoint of geography and climate.

The objective of these two flights is to study the surface and atmosphere of Mars. They will probably again not answer the question of life on Mars, but they will help to establish the basis for future experiments in the search for extraterrestrial life and to develop technology for future Mars missions.

Both spacecraft will carry television cameras. The photographs they will return will be far better than the photographs of Mars returned by Mariner IV in 1965. We expect a resolution of about 900 feet in the surface pictures, compared with two miles in the Mariner IV pictures.

Instruments aboard the spacecraft will yield data on atmospheric pressure and densities, and surface temperatures.

Unmanned Probes to Mars are also scheduled for 1971, when the spacecraft will orbit the planet for three months, and in 1973, when two spacecraft, in a mission called Project Viking, will orbit Mars and detach soft landers to descend to the surface

Slide 2 - Lunar Orbiter Photo of Copernicus

Unmanned spacecraft have preceded man to the moon. From 1964 to early 1968, NASA flew 15 unmanned spacecraft to and around the moon. Thirteen of them - three Rangers, five Lunar Orbiters, and five Surveyors - returned 106,000 photographs.

This is a photograph of the crater Copernicus, taken by Lunar Orbiter II. The distance from the base of the photo to the horizon is about 150 miles. Mountains rise as high as 1,000 feet from the crater floor.

The quality of the Ranger, Lunar Orbiter, and Surveyor pictures was from 1,000 to 1,000,000 times better than the best photos taken previously by earth based telescopes. From these detailed pictures, scientists have compiled accurate maps of virtually all of the moon’s visible side and 99 percent of its hidden face.

Slide 3 - Surveyor Spacecraft

The Surveyor spacecraft, which soft-landed on the moon, gave the ultimate answers that we needed before attempting a manned lunar landing. Surveyor III used a steel-tipped claw on a retractable arm to scoop up soil and deposit it on the foot pad of the spacecraft. Soil sampling and chemical analyzer devices on a later Surveyor answered basic questions on the composition of the lunar surface, the quality of its soil, and the nature of its rocks.

The Surveyors confirmed our belief that the moon’s surface will support spacecraft or men without danger of sinking deeply into the terrain.

With these spacecraft scientist have learned more about the moon in four years than in all of the 350 years since Galileo first turned his telescope toward the moon.

Slide 4 - Apollo 8 Astronauts

Astronauts Frank Borman, James A. Lovell, Jr., and William A. Anders were the first men to follow the trail to the moon blazed by the Mariner, Lunar Orbiter, and Surveyor space-craft. This was the first time that men have escaped earth’s gravity to enter the gravitational field of another heavenly body. There will be many, many more flights by other astronauts in the years ahead.

Slide 5 -Mating of S-IC stage and S-11 stage in VAB

The launch vehicle for sending the Apollo spacecraft to the moon is the Saturn V, developed, produced, and tested by the Marshall Space Flight Center and its contractors. Four separate prime contractors are responsible for the three stages of the launch vehicle and its instrument unit, which provides guidance and communications. These separate items are brought together for the first time in the huge Vertical Assembly building at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. With the launching platform as a base, the stages are stacked upright like building blocks to form the Saturn V. here you see the second stage being placed atop the first stage.

Slide 6 - Apollo 8 Spacecraft mated in VAB

When the tree stages of the Saturn V and its instrument unit have been assembled, the three modules of the Apollo 8 spacecraft are added to the configuration. The lunar module of the spacecraft, designed solely for traveling from lunar orbit to the moon’s surface and back into lunar orbit to the moon’s surface and back into lunar orbit, was not carried on the Apollo 8 mission.  Here you see the command and service modules of the spacecraft being mated to the Saturn V launch vehicle inside the Vertical Assembly Building. NASA’s Manned Spacecraft Center at Houston is responsible for providing the spacecraft, selecting and training the astronauts, and operating the mission control center during manned flights.

Slide 7 - Rollout of Saturn V (E-5083)

The Kennedy Space Center provides the launch facilities, performs the checkout of the assembled launch vehicle and spacecraft, and conducts the countdown for launching. When the assembled Saturn V and spacecraft are ready to leave the Vertical Assembly Building, a huge transporter moves into the building, and picks up the entire launch platform, 46- story launch tower that is mounted upon it, and the 363-foot-tall assembled vehicle. It is a 12-million-pound load. The transporter itself weighs five million pound load. The transporter itself weighs five million pounds and has more topside room than a baseball infield. The journey to the moon begins at a speed of less than one mile per hour, as the transporter balances its load delicately with an accuracy of less than one degree of tilt. The three-and-one-half mile trip from the VAB to the launch pad requires several hours.

Slide 8 - Launch of Saturn V    

The Saturn V had been tested in only two launches, both unmanned, before the Apollo 8 mission. This was its first manned launch. The long countdown proceeded with remarkable smoothness considering the complexity of the vehicle. Not a single hold was called for technical difficulties.  The 3,000-ton vehicle lifted off exactly on schedule at 7:51am Saturday morning, December 21, 1968. Except for the moments of liftoff, a launch vehicle has no more glamor and sexiness than Lady Godiva’s horse - it is simply a means of transportation. After successful liftoff, all eyes were on Lady Godiva - in this instance, the three Astronauts.

Slide 9 - First stage separation (PA 3265)

The crew reported the smoothest ride they had ever experienced. The Saturn V was free of the pogo-effect observed earlier, because of minor corrective action taken after the second vehicle was launched. After two-and-a-half minutes of flight, the first stage dropped away, and the second stage ignited. This photograph, made with a camera aboard the second stage, and the blazing interstage ring also dropping away. The first, second, and third stages of the launch vehicle performed almost precisely as planned, placing the spacecraft, with the third stage still attached, into an almost perfect circular orbit at an altitude of 100 nautical miles.  To give you some idea of the perfection attained on the Apollo 8 mission, there were some five million parts in the Apollo/Saturn vehicle. Only five non-critical parts actually failed during the entire trip to the moon and back. That is a demonstrated reliability of 99.9999 percent - a phenomenal level of reliability.

Slide 10 - Third Stage Operations (ED 1320)

During the second Earth orbit, the Saturn V’s third stage engine was restarted to increase the spacecraft’s velocity to about 35,500 feet per second, or roughly 24,300 miles per hour, placing it on a path to the Moon. The command and service modules then separated from the third stage and began the Trans lunar coast period of about 66 hours. The excess fuel in the discarded third stage was vented. The stage traveled a path that carried it further and further away from the astronauts, past the trailing edge of the moon, and into solar orbit only one mid - course correction of four feet per second was required by the spacecraft to get to the moon - another demonstration of the remarkable precision attained during flight.

Slide 11 - Moon from Apollo 8 (M2213)

Astronaut Bill Anders has said that he did not once see the moon on the way there. As they approached the moon and reoriented the spacecraft, the astronauts were in its shadow, hidden by the bulk of the moon from both the Sun and the Earth. He said that he could sense something big and black, a great dark mass, building up ahead of the spacecraft. It was a reassuring feeling to him when the spacecraft burst into sunlight to give the first close-up look at the spectacular lunar landscape.

Slide 12 - Earth rise from the Moon

Firing the engine of the service module while they were on the far side of the moon, the astronauts slowed their space-craft until they were drawn into lunar orbit. This orbit was circularized two revolutions later at an altitude of 60 nautical miles. The astronauts completed a total of ten revolutions of the moon, taking numerous movie and still photographs of the view from their spacecraft. This is a view of the Earth rising over the Moon’s horizon. The width of the Moon’s horizon shown in the foreground is about 95 miles. On Earth the sunset terminator crosses Africa. The South Pole is near the left end of the crescent.

Slide 13 - Close-up of Earth

Near the end of their tenth revolution of the Moon, the astronauts performed one of the most critical maneuvers of the mission. They fired their service propulsion engine, again while on the far side of the moon out of contact with the mission control center, to increase their speed, breaking free of the Moon’s gravitational pull, and beginning a fall back to Earth. Here is the “good Earth” as viewed by the returning astronauts. Jettisoning the service module, they turned the command module blunt end forward and reentered Earth’s atmosphere to land less than 3,000 yards from the recovery ship Splashdown came at 10:51 a.m. Eastern Standard Time, December 27 - on the very minute scheduled weeks before the journey began.

Slide 14 - Lunar Module

All of the route from Earth to the Moon and back again was explored by Astronauts Borman, Lovell, and Anders except the last few miles - the distance from lunar orbit at 60 nautical miles to the Moon’s surface. This part of the journey will be made by the lunar module of the Apollo spacecraft, shown here. This awkward looking craft is actually very sophisticated in design. It stands 23 feet tall, weighs 32,500 lbs. and has more than one million parts. the descent stage has the spraddle legged landing gear and an engine that can be throttled  down from 9,800 pounds of thrust to 1,000 for a gentle landing on the Moon’s surface. The two astronauts who will land on the moon ride in the upper portion of the lunar module, called the ascent stage.

To get from the lunar surface to lunar orbit, they use the descent stage as a launching pad, and fire the 3,500-pound thrust engine of the ascent stage on a trajectory that will permit them to rendezvous and dock with the third astronaut, who remains in lunar orbit in the command module. The lunar module has been tested in space only once, and that was during an unmanned flight in earth orbit.

Slide 15 - Apollo 9 Astronauts (PA 3271)  

The next flight in Project Apollo - the Apollo 9 mission which is scheduled for February 28th - will test the lunar module in Earth orbit during a manned mission. Commander of the spacecraft will be James A. McDavitt. David R. Scott will be the command module pilot. Although the Apollo 9 spacecraft will remain humbly in earth orbit, its mission is altogether as exciting and complex as the Apollo 8 mission. It is extremely demanding, but we feel we have done our homework. The Saturn V was fueled Tuesday in the windup of a trial countdown that clears the way for a February 28 launch.

Slide 16 - Earth Orbit Docking Test (E 1319)

During launch the command and service modules of the Apollo spacecraft are stacked atop the lunar module. After insertion into a 109-by-112 nautical miles earth orbit, the astronauts will perform a simulated Trans lunar insertion. They will then separate the command/service modules, turn them around and dock with the lunar module, which is still attached to the third stage of Saturn v. After extracting the lunar module from its adapter section, the astronauts will then maneuver away from the third stage of the rocket. During the remainder of the mission in earth orbit, they will put the spacecraft through its paces, duplicating all the maneuvers required on a trip to the moon except touchdown on the lunar surface.

Slide 17 - CM and LM Separation

During the third day of the Apollo 9 earth orbital mission, Astronauts McDivitt and Schweickart will enter the lunar module through the three-foot-long connecting tunnel that begins in the nose cone of their command module. They will charge the lunar module’s batteries fill the cabin with a pressurized oxygen, and make a three-hour check of its systems. A six minute test firing of the descent engine will be conducted, with the lunar module remaining docked to the command/service module. After powering down the lunar module, the two astronauts will then return to the command module through the tunnel. The service module’s 20,500-pound thrust engine will be fired to circularize the orbit at 133 nautical miles.

On the fourth day of the mission the two astronauts will again enter the tunnel, power up the lunar module’s systems, and prepare for an extravehicular return to the command module. Schweickart will step out into space through the forward hatch of the lunar module for the first extravehicular activity in Project Apollo. Holding onto a handrail, Schweickart will pull himself upright on what he calls the lunar module’s “front porch” and slip into a pair of “golden slippers.” The slippers, made of fiberglass and painted gold, will hold him in place, freeing his hands to take photographs of the two spacecraft. Schweickart will travel about 20 feet along the handrail to the command module, where Astronaut Scott will open the hatch for him to step inside. After resting his hands for a few minutes, he will step back into space and travel along the handrail to the lunar module, should the tunnel somehow be damaged during the rendezvous and docking after return from the lunar surface.

Slide 18 - Earth Orbit Rendezvous Test

One of the most critical events of the Apollo 9 mission will take place during the fifth day. McDavitt and Schweickart will go through the tunnel into the lunar module and separate it from the command/service module. Firing the big descent engine of the lunar module, they will move out about 50 miles ahead of the command module.

A second firing will place them another 50 miles ahead, but they will be tracked by radar from the command module. After about six hours, the lunar module will rendezvous and dock with the command/service module. The lunar module, which has no heat shield and is not designed for reentry into earth’s atmosphere, will be left in earth orbit.

Touchdown is planned in the Atlantic Ocean about 1000 nautical miles east of Cape Kennedy.

Slide 19 - Apollo Spacecraft in Lunar Orbit  

If the Apollo 9 mission is successful, NASA will proceed with the Apollo 10 mission, now scheduled for mid-May. This will be the first mission during which all three modules of the Apollo 10 mission, now scheduled for mid-May this will be the first mission during which all three modules of the Apollo spacecraft will be carried to the Moon. No landing is planned on the Apollo 10 flight, however. Two astronauts will enter the lunar module, detach from the command/service module, fire the descent engine, and swoop down to within 10 miles of the Moon on an elliptical orbit. Without landing, they will swing back to the altitude of the 60-mile-high circular lunar orbit, rendezvous and dock with the command/service module, which had been left in orbit, abandon the lunar module, and return to Earth, like the Apollo 8 astronauts.

Slide 20 - Exploration of Lunar Surface (NASA S-67-8308)

The Apollo 11 mission is now scheduled for July. If the preceding flights are successful, this will be the first attempt to achieve a manned lunar landing. When the first lunar landing is made, the astronauts will remain on the Moon’s surface less than one day. They will leave their spacecraft for one three-hour walk on the lunar surface in their pressurized spacesuits. During this time they will take photographs, make geological observations, collect samples of lunar material for examination by scientists, and emplace scientific experiments. These will include a seismometer which will provide data on the internal activity of the moon for up to one year; a laser retro-reflector which will serve as a target to reflect laser beams from earth; and an effort to learn more about the nature of the solar wind.

The primary objective of the mission, however is simply to prove out the Apollo System by achieving a successful manned lunar landing and safe return to earth. If the Apollo 11 astronauts should return to earth without landing on the moon because of some difficulty, we would still be able to attempt two additional missions before the end of this year. The Apollo 12 and Apollo 13 crews and hardware would be standing by as backups. If no major modifications in equipment were necessary, the current schedule for their launch could be followed. So we are confident of achieving the Apollo goal of a manned lunar landing before the end of this decade.

Slide 21 - Saturn 1 Workshop  

When the first landing on the moon has been completed in Project Apollo, we shall continue to use the Saturn V launch vehicles and Apollo spacecraft, the launch facilities, and the trained launch crews in the Apollo Applications Program. We shall continue to make trips of exploration to the moon, carrying heavier loads of scientific equipment, and extending the range of our traverses on the surface.

And we shall continue manned space flight in earth orbit, gradually increasing the stay time to determine man’s ability to do useful work over an extended period of time. The upper stage of Saturn launch vehicle will be converted into a spacious workshop for three astronauts in the early Seventies. Here you see such a stage in earth orbit - with a spacecraft and telescopes for observing the sun attached to it.

Slide 22 - Interior of Workshop

Here is the roomy interior of the Workshop. The excess propellants from the 10,000 -cubic-foot hydrogen tank have been vented into space and the tank has been pressurized with a breathable atmosphere of oxygen and nitrogen. The tank provides a crew station with almost fifty times the interior space available to the astronauts in the Apollo spacecraft. The crew station is divided into two bedrooms, a kitchen, bathroom, work-room, and an upper level for scientific and engineering experiments.

The Workshop is not recoverable, but it can be revisited and reused many times. It is the forerunner of true space stations which may one day be manned by crews of 100 scientists, engineers, and technicians.

Slide 23 - Crop Identification

Many people believe that the greatest value of space exploration will come from monitoring the earth’s resources from satellites. This potential covers more than just prospecting for valuable minerals and other sought after deposits. It includes daily observation of all the conditions on the earth’s surface which are of economic or cultural interest to humanity, cloud cover, water, soil, timber and crops to name a few.

This picture, although taken from an aircraft, is an example of the type of pictures made from orbit. The infrared film reveals various color shadings, or signatures, allowing identification of the different types of planted crops. This process can be used to determine which crops are healthy and which are unhealthy. It also reveals where the soil is dry and needs irrigation, needs fertilizer, or where the salinity is too high for efficient production.

Slide 24 - Bahaman Banks (Gemini Photo)   

Remote sensing processes will also prove invaluable over the great oceans of the earth. In fact, because most of the oceans are never seen by man, oceanography should lend itself ideally to remote sensing by satellite.

Water features that someday may be monitored on a continuous basis include sea surface temperature and currents, sea state, ice, and marine life detection.

In this picture, taken from a Gemini spacecraft, we see the great Bahaman Banks, in a normal color photograph. Of course, with infrared and other sensing devices, much more information can be obtained. But, even in a normal color photograph. Of course, with infrared and other sensing devices, much more information can be obtained. But, even in routine color photography, the structure of the ocean surface beneath about 20 feet of water is clearly outlined by the lighter color. The tongue of the ocean shown in the lower left exceeds one mile in depth.

Obviously, satellite photography of the ocean could assist in preparation of charts for navigation purposes. And, in coastal regions, this type of photography can be useful in analyzing the outflow from rivers and streams and the deposits of silt and pollution contained by the rivers.

Slide 25 - High Altitude Photo if India   

Here we see the Indian Subcontinent, taken from high altitude by a Gemini Spacecraft.

The teeming, and sometimes starving, masses of India serve as stark reminders of the urgent need to develop earth resources and remote sensing techniques.

Satellites can provide us with up-to-date information about the world’s food supply and the world’s growing population, the supply and the demand, the amount of food available and the hungry mouths that need to be fed.

In NASA’s Apollo Applications Program, we are already planning experiments in monitoring earth resources through remote sensing techniques. These devices will be carried aloft by our astronauts in the Saturn 1 Workshop and later in the larger space stations.

The prospects of a wonderful future for mankind are promising both here on earth and in the most distant reaches of the sky. In setting our sights on the stars, we have not, even for one moment, forgotten down-to-earth needs. In the Space Age, we can have them both.

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