John Houston, PhD


Research Interests

  • Assessing Competitiveness
  • Group Decision Making
  • Organizational Change


The Revised Competitiveness Index©

(Administration and Scoring Instructions)



PDF Revised Competitiveness Index (pdf, 9 KB)

PDF Revised Competitiveness Index Instructions (this document as pdf, 22 KB)


The Revised Competitiveness Index (CI-R) is a structured personality instrument consisting of 14 Likert-type items (with a 5-point response scale) concerning interpersonal competitiveness in everyday contexts. Research indicates that the CI-R has high internal consistency (alpha = .87) and contains two stable factors which form reliable subscales of Enjoyment of Competition and Contentiousness (Houston, Harris, McIntire, & Francis, 2002). The CI-R is significantly correlated with other measures of competitiveness including the Work and Family Orientation Competitiveness Subscale and the Sport Orientation Questionnaire Competitiveness Subscale. In addition, the CI-R is correlated with Need for Achievement (Harris, Houston, & Norman, 2003), the Aggressive Driving Behavior Scale (Harris & Houston, in press), Narcissism (Luchner, Houston, & Varley, 2007), Individualism-Collectivisim (Houston, Sabin, & Opina, 2009), and the Big 5 factors of Extraversion and Agreeableness (Harris, Houston, Skelton, & Sachau ,2009).


The CI-R is designed to take approximately 5 minutes to complete and can be administered privately or in a group setting. To avoid the potentially biasing effects of priming and labeling, the instrument should be administered using a generic title such as "Attitude Questionnaire." Respondents should be asked to answer all the questions and to avoid spending too much time on any one item.


The CI-R is scored by summing the responses to the items. The following scale items are reverse scored (1=5, 2=4, 3=3, 4=2, 5=1): items 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 14. Since all items have equal weighting, scores range from 14 to 70. Based on a sample of approximately 213 undergraduates, the mean CI for women is 47.07 (SD = 9.89) and 51.71 (SD = 9.44) for men. As with other measures of competitiveness (Houston, McIntire, Kinnie, & Terry, 2002), mean comparisons of scores for men and women indicate significant sex/gender differences. Cross-cultural research comparing American and Chinese undergraduates suggests that sex/gender differences on the CI-R generalize to other cultures (Houston, Harris, Moore, Brummett, & Kametani 2005). Initial findings also indicate that CI-R scores are approximately normally distributed.

Subscale Scores

The Enjoyment of Competition Scale consists of items 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 (alpha = .90) with a mean score for women of 31.38 (SD = 9.65) and a mean score for men of 36.04 (SD = 7.02). The Contentiousness Scale includes items 3, 5, 7, 8, 14 (alpha = .74) with a mean for women of 14.66 (SD = 4.49) and a mean for men of 15.96 (SD = 4.69). The Enjoyment of Competition Scale is positively correlated with the Contentiousness Scale (r = .34, p <.01).


Harris, P. B., & Houston, J. M. (in press). Recklessness in context: A transactional analysis of aggressive driving behavior. Environment and Behavior.

Harris, P. B., Houston, J. M., Skelton, A. D., Sachau, D. (2009). Both sides of the road: Developing a measure of positive and negative driving practices. Environmental Design Research Association, Kansas City, MO.

Houston, J. M., Sabin, K., & Ospina, A. (2009). Individualism-Collectivism and Competitiveness: Exploring Empirical Linkages for Women. Presented at the 55th meeting of the Southeastern Psychological Association, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Luchner, A., Houston, J. M., & Varley, C. (2007). The Relationship between Two Forms of Narcissism and Competitiveness. Presented at the 115th Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association, Division 8, San Francisco, California.

Houston, J. M., Harris, P. B., Moore, R., Brummett, R. A., & Kametani, H. (2005). Competitiveness in Japanese, Chinese, and American undergraduates. Psychological Reports, 97, 205-212.

Harris, P., Houston, J. M., & Norman, M. (2003). Situational correlates of aggressive driving. Poster presented at the 49th Annual Meeting of the Southeastern Psychological Association, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Houston, J. M., Harris, P., McIntire, S., & Francis, D. (2002). Revising the Competitiveness Index using factor analysis. Psychological Reports, 90, 31-34.

Houston, J.M., McIntire, S., Kinnie, J., & Terry, C. (2002). A factor analysis of scales measuring competitiveness. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 62, 284-298.


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John Houston
Professor of Psychology

Bush 316
T. 407.646.2099


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Rollins College
Department of Psychology
1000 Holt Ave. - 2760
Winter Park, FL 32789

T. 407.646.2227
F. 407.646.2685
Office: Bush Science Center, third floor

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