Birds of the Genius Preserve
Barred owl

The number and variety of birds that utilize the Genius Preserve is extensive. Predatory birds such as the Bald Eagle, Red-shouldered Hawk, Red-tailed Hawk, Osprey and Barred Owl regularly perch in tall trees and snags, scanning the Preserve for prey. Wading and diving birds including the Great Blue Heron, Great Egret, Anhinga, Double-crested Cormorant, White Ibis and Limpkin use the littoral habitat for feeding and several species use it for nesting. Other permanent residents on the Preserve include the Carolina Wren, Northern Mockingbird, Blue Jay, Fish Crow, Northern Cardinal, Red-winged Blackbird, Common Grackle and three types of woodpeckers — Pileated, Red-bellied and Downy. Migratory birds like the Gray Catbird, Cedar Waxwing, Indigo Bunting and American Redstart also utilize the Preserve for food or temporary shelter.

Since September 2007, the Orange Audubon Society has been conducting monthly bird surveys to establish a baseline inventory of year-round and migratory birds that utilize the Preserve for breeding and/or foraging habitat. The data collected will provide another important measure of the success of the ecological restoration effort. The species identified thus far are listed below and are updated monthly.


Genius Preserve Bird List (PDF)

Ducks, Geese & Swans

____ Fulvous Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygnus bicolor)

____ *Wood Duck (Aix sponsa)

____ Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) - INTRODUCED

____ Mottled Duck (Anas fulvigula)

____ Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors)

____ Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata)

____ Ring-necked Duck (Aythya collaris)

____ Greater Scaup (Aythya marila)

____ Hooded Merganser (Mergus cucullatus)

____ Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis)

Partridges, Grouse, Turkeys & Old World Quail

____ *Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus) - INTRODUCED

____ Green Peafowl (Pavo muticus) - INTRODUCED


____ Common Loon (Gavia immer)


____*Pied-billed Grebe (Podilymbus podiceps)

____ Horned Grebe (Podiceps auritus)


____ Leach’s Storm-Petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa)


____ Wood Stork (Mycteria americana)


____ Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus)


____ *Anhinga (Anhinga anhinga)


____ American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos)

____ Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis)

Herons, Bitterns & Allies

____ American Bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus)

____*Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias)

____ Great Egret (Ardea alba)

____ Snowy Egret (Egretta thula)

____ Little Blue Heron (Egretta caerulea)

____ Tricolored Heron (Egretta tricolor)

____ Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis)

____ *Green Heron (Butorides virescens)

____ Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax

Ibises & Spoonbills

____ White Ibis (Eudocimus albus)

____ Glossy Ibis (Plegadis falcinellus

____ Roseate Spoonbill (Platalea ajaja)

New World Vultures

____ Black Vulture (Coragyps atratus)

____ Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura)


____ *Osprey (Pandion haliaetus

Hawks, Kites, Eagles & Allies

____ Swallow-tailed Kite (Elanoides forficatus)

____ Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)

____ Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus)

____ Sharp-shinned Hawk (Accipiter striatus)

____ Cooper’s Hawk (Accipiter cooperii)

____ Red-shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus)

____ Swainson's Hawk (Buteo swainsoni)

____ *Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis)

Rails, Gallinules & Coots

____ *Common Gallinule (Gallinula galeata)

____ American Coot (Fulica americana


____ Limpkin (Aramus guarauna)


____ Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis)

Lapwings & Plovers

____ Killdeer (Charadrius vociferus

Sandpipers, Phalaropes & Allies

____ Spotted Sandpiper (Actitis macularius)

____ Calidris sp.

____ Long-billed Dowitcher (Limnodramus scolopaceus)

Gulls & Terns

____ Bonaparte’s Gull (Chroicocephalus philadelphia)

____ Laughing Gull (Leucophaeus atricilla)

____ Ring-billed Gull (Larus delawarensis)

____ Herring Gull (Larus argentatus)

____ Least Tern (Sternula antillarum)

____ Gull-billed Tern (Gelochelidon nilotica)

____ Caspian Tern (Hydroprogne caspia)

____ Forster’s Tern (Sterna forsteri)

____ Black Skimmer (Rynchops niger)

Pigeons & Doves

____ Rock Pigeon (Columba livia)

____ Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto)

____ White-winged Dove (Zenaida asiatica)

____ *Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura)

____ Common Ground-Dove (Columbina passerina

Cuckoos, Roadrunners & Anis

____ Yellow-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus)

____ Black-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus erythropthalmus)

Barn Owls

____ Barn Owl (Tyto alba)

Typical Owls

____ Eastern Screech-Owl (Megascops asio)

____ *Barred Owl (Strix varia)


____ Common Nighthawk (Chordeiles minor)

____ Chuck-will’s-widow (Antrostomus carolinensis)

____ Eastern Whip-poor-will (Antrostomus vociferus)


____ *Chimney Swift (Chaetura pelagica)


____ Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Archilochus colubris)

____ Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus)


____ Belted Kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon)

Woodpeckers & Allies

____ Red-headed Woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus)

____ *Red-bellied Woodpecker (Melanerpes carolinus)

____ Yellow-bellied Sapsucker (Sphyrapicus varius)

____ *Downy Woodpecker (Picoides pubescens)

____ Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus)

____ *Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus)

Caracaras & Falcons

____ American Kestrel (Falco sparverius)

____ Merlin (Falco columbarius)

____ Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus

Lories, Parakeets, Macaws & Parrots

____ Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) - ESCAPEE 

Tyrant Flycatchers

____ Eastern Wood-Pewee (Contopus virens)

____ Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens)

____ Least Flycatcher (Empidonax minimus)

____ Eastern Phoebe (Sayornis phoebe)

____ *Great Crested Flycatcher (Myiarchus crinitus)

____ Eastern Kingbird (Tyrannus tyrannus)


____ *Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus)


____ White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus)

____ Bell's Vireo (Vireo bellii)

____ *Yellow-throated Vireo (Vireo flavifrons)

____ Blue-headed Vireo (Vireo solitarius)

____ Philadelphia Vireo (Vireo philadelphicus)

____ Red-eyed Vireo (Vireo olivaceus)

Crows & Jays

____ *Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata)

____ American Crow (Corvus brachyrhrynchos)

____ Fish Crow (Corvus ossifragus)


____ Purple Martin (Progne subis)

____ Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor)

____ Northern Rough-winged Swallow (Stelgidopteryx serripennis)

____ Bank Swallow (Riparia riparea)

____ Cliff Swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota)

____ Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica)

Chickadees & Titmice

____*Tufted Titmouse (Baeolophus bicolor)


____ *Carolina Wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus)

____ House Wren (Troglodytes aedon)

____ Sedge Wren (Cistothorus platensis)


____ *Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea)


____ Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula)


____ Townsend’s Solitaire (Myadestes townsendi)

____ Veery (Catharus fuscescens)

____ Gray-cheeked Thrush (Catharus minimus)

____ Swainson’s Thrush (Catharus ustulatus)

____ Hermit Thrush (Catharus guttatus)

____ Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina)

____ American Robin (Turdus migratorius)

Mockingbirds & Thrashers

____ Gray Catbird (Dumetella carolinensis)

____ *Northern Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos)

____ *Brown Thrasher (Toxostoma rufum)


____ European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris)


____ Cedar Waxwing (Bombycilla cedrorum)


____ Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla)

____ Worm-eating Warbler (Helmitheros vermivorum)

____ Northern Waterthrush (Parkesia noveboracensis)

____ Blue-winged Warbler (Vermivora cyanoptera)

____ Black-and-white Warbler (Mniotilta varia)

____ Prothonotary Warbler (Protonotaria citrea)

____ Swainson’s Warbler (Limnothlypis swainsonii)

____ Tennessee Warbler (Oreothlypis peregrina)

____ Orange-crowned Warbler (Oreothlypis celata)

____ Nashville Warbler (Oreothlypis ruficapilla)

____ Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas)

____ Hooded Warbler (Setophaga citrina)

____ American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla)

____ Cape May Warbler (Setophaga tigrina)

____*Northern Parula (Setophaga americana)

____ Magnolia Warbler (Setophaga magnolia)

____ Bay-breasted Warbler (Setophaga castanea)

____ Blackburnian Warbler (Setophaga fusca)

____ Yellow Warbler (Setophaga petechia)

____ Chestnut-sided Warbler (Setophaga pensylvanica)

____ Blackpoll Warbler (Setophaga striata)

____ Black-throated Blue Warbler (Setophaga caerulescens)

____ Palm Warbler (Setophaga palmarum)

____ Pine Warbler (Setophaga pinus)

____ Yellow-rumped Warbler (Setophaga coronata)

____ Yellow-throated Warbler (Setophaga dominica)

____ Prairie Warbler (Setophaga discolor)

____ Black-throated Green Warbler (Setophaga virens)

____ Wilson's Warbler (Cardellina pusilla)


____ Cuban Grassquit (Tiaris canorus) - PROBABLE ESCAPE

____ Eastern Towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus)

____ Chipping Sparrow (Spizella passerina)

____ Swamp Sparrow (Melospiza georgiana)

Cardinals & Allies

____ Summer Tanager (Piranga rubra)

____ Scarlet Tanager (Piranga olivacea)

____ Western Tanager (Piranga ludoviciana)

____ *Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis)

____ Rose-breasted Grosbeak (Pheucticus ludovicianus)

____ Blue Grosbeak (Passerina caerulea)

____ Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea)

____ Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris)


____ Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus)

____ *Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus)

____ *Common Grackle (Quiscalus quiscula)

____ *Boat-tailed Grackle (Quiscalus major)

____ Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater)

____ Orchard Oriole (Icterus spurius)

____ Baltimore Oriole (Icterus galbula)

Fringilline & Cardueline Finches & Allies

____ *House Finch (Haemorhous mexicanus)

____ American Goldfinch (Spinus tristis)


* Indicates nesting species

COMPILED BY: BHAnderson, Brooks & Lyn Atherton, Jocelyn Baker, Andy Bankert, Greg Bretz, Cecie Catron, Susan Epps, Dot Freeman, Murray Gardler, Claire Hilliker, Bonnie Hubbard, Paul Hueber, Joyce Judefind, Cyndi Kay, Helen Lovell, Lorne Malo, Stacey Matrazzo, Craig Mazer, Becky Payne, Cheri Pierce, Bill Pranty, Nancy Prine, Julie Pringle, Dexter Richardson, Ellen Rocco, Tom Rodriguez, Bob Sicolo, Bruce Stephenson, Eugene Stoccardo, Leesa Sward, Larry & Barbara Taylor, Renee Taylor, Alex Vinokur, Teresa Williams.