To be eligible for the Bachelor of Arts degree, a student must complete the following requirements, in addition to courses outlined in the major. A student may fulfill the requirements specified in this Catalogue or any subsequent Catalogues maintained and updated regularly on the College's web site, while the student is continuously enrolled in the College of Arts and Sciences. However, a student who withdraws or is dismissed from Rollins may be required to follow any curricular policies in effect at the time of the return.
STATEMENT OF RESPONSIBILITY
Students are responsible for knowing and meeting all degree requirements and academic regulations listed in the College Catalogue. Academic advising transcripts and general education completion reports are available to all students on the Office of Student Records web site (www.rollins.edu/studentrecords) to assist them in keeping informed about progress made toward the degree. Questions concerning degree requirements and academic regulations should be addressed to the academic advisor or the Assistant Dean for Academic Administration and Records.
Students must complete a minimum of 140 semester hours of academic work, of which at least sixty-four (64) semester hours must be outside a single departmental prefix. All students must complete a minimum of sixteen (16) semester hours that are not used to meet either a general education curriculum or major requirement.
GRADE POINT AVERAGE
Students must earn a minimum academic average of a 2.00 ('C') for all courses taken at Rollins and achieve a minimum academic average of a 2.00 ('C') for all courses taken to fulfill major and minor requirements.
GRADUATION PETITION AND SENIOR AUDIT
Students must complete and submit a Graduation Petition to be considered for graduation. In addition, students are responsible for preparing, submitting, and obtaining approval for their Senior General Education, Major, and if appropriate, Minor Audits. The Senior Audits document, by academic advisor and major/minor department chair approval, that all general education curriculum and major/minor requirements have been met.
Students may not receive degrees (including diploma or final transcript showing degree completion) until all graduation forms have been submitted and all graduation requirements have been completed. The degrees are awarded in December, May, and August, therefore the degree completion date will be the next degree date following the completion of graduation requirements and receipt of all forms and transcripts.
Once admitted to full-time degree status in the College of Arts and Sciences or College of Professional Studies, students must complete at least seventy (70) semester hours in the College (including Rollins or Rollins-affiliated off-campus courses, and approved Hamilton Holt School courses). Moreover, students must be enrolled full-time in the College of Arts and Sciences or College of Professional Studies during the last two (2) consecutive semesters (excluding summer terms).
Graduating seniors participate in an annual Commencement ceremony held each May. Only students who have completed all graduation requirements may participate in the Commencement ceremony.
Petitions of Academic Appeal to participate in Commencement without all graduation requirements complete will be considered only when the following conditions are met.
1) The student has an overall GPA of 2.0 ('C') and a 2.0 ('C') GPA in the major and minor both at the time of petition and at the time of Commencement;Students who file a Request to Participate in Commencement and subsequently participate in the May commencement ceremony may not then enroll in regularly scheduled Arts and Sciences courses during any future fall or spring term. Request to Participate in Commencement forms to make such academic appeals are available from the Office of Student Records.
2) the student presents a viable plan, including documentation of course availability and an approved Request to Study Outside of Arts and Sciences, consisting of no more than eight (8) semester hours; and
3) the department chair of the student's major approves the plan submitted.
College honors, honors in the major field, nor any other College awards to graduating students will be neither recorded in programs, ascribed to student academic records, nor announced during ceremonies for any student who has not completed all graduation requirements at the time of Commencement. Students may participate in only one (1) graduation ceremony for Arts & Sciences.
The President approves degrees for students completing graduation requirements in fall term in December, for students completing requirements in spring term in May, and for students completing requirements in summer term in August.
As preparation for "responsible citizenship and ethical leadership in local and global communities," as articulated in the February 2004 Rollins College mission statement, students need both breadth and depth in their learning experience. By majoring in at least one area of knowledge, students gain the depth necessary for disciplinary expertise, whereas the general education curriculum in the Arts and Sciences exposes students to varied perspectives and domains of knowledge. Additionally, in keeping with the mission of the College of Arts and Sciences, which is, in part, "to provide a rigorous liberal arts baccalaureate education of the highest quality," the general education curriculum exposes students to the ways various areas of knowledge may reinforce and enrich each other.
The faculty of the College of Arts and Sciences have identified the following set of core competencies within the general education program.
1. To obtain knowledge of the distinctive methodologies and subject matter of the sciences, social sciences, arts, and humanities.
2. Ability to read, think, write, and speak critically and analytically.
3. Ability to identify and articulate moral and ethical dimensions of a personal or social issue.
To be eligible for a Bachelor of Arts degree, students must complete one course from each of the general education areas listed below, with the possible exception of up to three courses to fulfill the foreign language 'F' requirement. Courses that meet these requirements are appropriately designated in the Schedule of Classes, published each term by the Office of Student Records. First-year students are also required to take a Rollins College Conference course, which may also fulfill a general education requirement.
Students may take an unlimited number of Foreign Language (F), Quantitative Reasoning (Q), Decision Making and Valuation (V), or Writing (W) courses within the major.
However, only one (1) additional general education curriculum course can be taken in the major from amongst the Expressive Arts (A), Non-Western Cultures (C), Western Society and Culture (D), Literature (L), Organic and Physical Sciences with Laboratory (O, P, and N), or Contemporary American Society (S), areas. Students may satisfy two (2) of this latter group of requirements within a self-designed major contract, but not within a single department.
Courses used to fulfill general education requirements must be taken for a letter grade, not on a credit/no-credit (CR/NC) basis. In addition, courses used to complete general education requirements may not normally be fulfilled through independent study - tutorial or research. The Office of Student Records may approve courses taken at regionally accredited institutions of higher education other than Rollins, or through International Baccalaureate (IB) or Advanced Placement (AP) courses, for general education curriculum credit. Approval designations will be noted on each student's Transfer Coursework Evaluation Form and Academic Advising Transcript (as provided on the Office of Student Records web site at www.rollins.edu/studentrecords).
(A) Expressive Arts: Artistic creation is a central and enduring activity in all cultures. The arts attest to the fundamental human need for self-expression and for the transformation of human experience into lasting symbolic form. Furthermore, the great diversity of art forms across cultures is evidence of the degree to which human experience, while shared, is also culturally determined. Expressive arts classes provide students with an appreciation for aesthetic experience by teaching the skills necessary for individual aesthetic expression or by focusing on acquiring a critical vocabulary with which to articulate aesthetic experience, or both, depending on the discipline. The expressive arts thus encompass both primary aspects of artistic creation: its practice and its scholarly study.
(C) Non-Western Cultures: Humans have adapted to a wide range of habitats and developed a rich variety of ways of interpreting and understanding the world. The diversity of these interpretations is part of what defines our species. By analyzing a non-western culture, students will better understand what is common to human nature and how societies differ from each other. Knowledge of other cultures will allow students, in addition, to recognize the dangers of cultural stereotyping.
(D) Western Society and Culture: The ideas, arts, and institutions that define Western society and culture have emerged from a rich historical process. In order to understand, appreciate and critically evaluate any aspect of this culture, one must have an understanding of the context from which it arose. By studying the Western heritage in its historical development, students will be encouraged to see the historical dimensions of the issues they face as engaged citizens today.
(F) Foreign Language: Foreign Language study has an intimate and necessary connection with the educational goal of learning about oneself and one's relationship to the world. Language is not just the primary vehicle for the communication of culture; it is culture. As such, foreign language study offers a unique window of perception regarding non-English speaking cultures, a window through which students can learn to communicate in a language other than their native tongue, learn how other people live and what they value, or, in the case of ancient languages, delve into our rich culture and philological heritage. Second language study also provides insights into the nature of language and its power to shape ideas and expression. The 'F' requirement can be fulfilled by studying either an ancient or a modern language for one semester at the intermediate (200) and/or advanced (300) level.
Only the following students can be exempted from this requirement:
Students who have taken the SAT-II, AP, or IB exams, regardless of their performance on these exams, are not exempt from this requirement.
Students are allowed to enroll at any level of the language they deem appropriate based on their previous preparation in secondary school. They will receive academic credit for all successfully completed courses. They may choose to enroll in elementary-level courses even though they have taken four years of high school study of a particular language. Nevertheless, students will fulfill the 'F' requirement only when they have taken at least one course at the intermediate (200) and/or advanced (300) level.
(L) Literature: Part of the reality and evolution of a mature culture resides in that culture's literary tradition, and the knowledgeable citizen will have read widely and understood that material. These courses expose the student to compelling contemporary writing as well as literary works that, by tradition and broad cultural consensus, have been deemed excellent in form or expression and of lasting, or even permanent, value and universal interest.
(O, P, and N) Organic and Physical Sciences with Laboratory: Humans live in and are part of the natural world. Our survival and success depends on our ability to understand, draw sustenance from, and sustain this world. Together, these courses focus on understanding the nature of science: its discovery process, the scientific method, and the historical sequence leading to major discoveries. Where possible, these courses discuss the social context of the science courses, and give examples of the interplay between science and society. Students must complete two sciences courses, one from the organic (life) or experimental behavioral sciences (O) and one from the physical sciences (P). A laboratory (N) is required with at least one of these two courses.
(Q) Quantitative Reasoning: Quantitative methods have become increasingly important in the natural and social sciences, business, government, and in many other activities that directly affect our lives. Furthermore, with the advent of fast computers with huge storage capabilities, it has become possible to collect, process, and disseminate large amounts of data. Playing an active role in the decision-making that shapes our society requires us to be able to interpret, analyze, and draw sound conclusions from the standard representations of data. This requirement may be satisfied by successful completion of a 'Q' course or by passing a 'Q' examination.
(S) Contemporary American Society: Because of the global prominence of the United States, a critical understanding of contemporary American society is a central component of a liberal arts education intended to prepare students for effective citizenship. The knowledge students acquire about American history, culture, and social institutions will contribute to their ability to reflect critically on their social environment and will enable them to sustain and transform the communities in which they live.
(V) Values: Through ethical values and moral principles, people find meaning in and justification of their actions as individuals, and as participants in their communities. Personal growth is encouraged by critically reflecting on one's own values, on the values of others, and on the values shaping society. Values courses improve students' abilities to articulate and evaluate the ethical principles involved in important decisions, in their own personal lives, or in society (either contemporary or historical).
(W) Writing: The communication of ideas, information, poetry, stories, intent, and even culture itself has been dependent on the ability of humans effectively to store facts and convert thoughts to written language. The ability to communicate ideas and information in writing is at the core of a liberal arts education and is essential for active citizenship. In covering both academic and (to a lesser degree) familiar writing, the W course focuses on understanding rhetorical strategies. Students will read the texts of others and learn to shape their own meanings by writing and editing a variety of forms.
Also included in the College's general education curriculum, but infused into one or more courses in each major discipline of study, are the following requirements.
Communication Across The Curriculum: A liberally educated person should be articulate and capable of effective listening. Oral communication skills are best developed if emphasized in a variety of disciplinary contexts. Students who acquire skills in oral communication are better prepared to perform in professional and civic life.
Writing Reinforcement: In a contemporary global society, one must be able to write coherently and thoughtfully in both public and professional spheres. To master the skills and rhetorical practices of writing within a given discipline, students must move beyond basic instruction to the complexities of audience analysis and engagement in the larger queries of an informed citizenry. Writing Reinforcement coursework requires students to produce a series of written assignments intended both to extend facility in English composition and to deepen understanding of course content. Students completing this requirement with ENG 140 must earn a grade of 'C' or better to receive the "W" general education designation.
Entering first-year students, or transfer students who have completed less than thirty (30) semester hours in any field, must satisfactorily complete three (3) terms of physical education. This includes one (1) term of Basic Physical Education (BPE) and two (2) terms of elective lifetime recreational activities (PEA). Students may be excused from PEA requirements for medical reasons.Transfer students with at least thirty (30) semester hours must take two (2) terms of PEA at Rollins, but are exempt from the BPE requirement. Transfer students who have completed sixty (60) semester hours in any field are exempt from both the BPE and PEA requirements. Students may not earn more than four (4) semester hours of credit for lifetime recreational activities (PEA) or varsity sport (PEV) courses combined.
As preparation for "responsible citizenship and ethical leadership in local and global communities," as articulated in the Rollins College mission statement, students need both breadth and depth in their learning experience. By majoring in at least one area of knowledge, students gain the depth necessary for disciplinary expertise, whereas the rFLA curriculum in Arts and Sciences and the College of Professional Studies exposes students to varied perspectives and domains of knowledge. Upon successful completion of this general education curriculum, students will be able:
Additionally, in keeping with the mission of the College of Arts and Sciences, which is, in part, "to provide a rigorous liberal arts baccalaureate education of the highest quality," the rFLA curriculum exposes students to the ways various areas of knowledge may reinforce and enrich each other.
All first-year students enroll in an RCC during the fall semester. Most students live in the same residence hall as their RCC classmates as part of the Living Learning Community program. The RCC is an interactive seminar class on a broad range of topics. Professors are drawn from all academic disciplines encompassing the arts, the sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences. Throughout the first semester, the RCC professor joins students in educational activities and co-curricular experiences that supplement and enhance the course. Upper-class peer mentors assist in the RCC and help first-year students with the transition to academics and life at the College. The faculty member teaching this seminar course also serves as the student's faculty advisor during their first year.
The RCC is not a prerequisite for any other course at Rollins, so students may advance if they fail their RCC course. However, no RCC may be taken for credit/no credit, so the grade earned in the RCC course will appear on the student's transcript.
Writing: In a contemporary global society, one must be able to write coherently and thoughtfully in both public and professional spheres. To master the skills and rhetorical practices of writing within a given discipline, students must move beyond basic instruction to the complexities of audience analysis and engagement in the larger queries of an informed citizenry. Writing coursework requires students to produce a series of written assignments intended both to extend facility in English composition and to deepen understanding of course content.
Writing competency courses may NOT be double-counted toward a major or minor. Students will complete this requirement by earning a C or better in any ENG 140 course, earning a C or better in an approved Rollins transfer course, or achieving an AP English Language and Composition exam score of 4 or 5.
Foreign Language: Foreign language study has an intimate and necessary connection with the educational goal of learning about oneself and one's relationship to the world. Language is not just the primary vehicle for the communication of culture; it is culture. As such, foreign language study offers a unique window of perception regarding non-English speaking cultures, a window through which students can learn to communicate in a language other than their native tongue, learn how other people live and what they value, or, in the case of ancient languages, delve into our rich culture and philological heritage. Second language study also provides insights into the nature of language and its power to shape ideas and expression.
Foreign Language competency courses may be double-counted toward a major. Students will complete this requirement by earning a C- or better in any Rollins course that carries the foreign language competency designation, earning a C- or better in an approved Rollins transfer course, achieving an AP Language exam score of 4 or 5, achieving an IB Language exam score of 6 or 7, or being an International Student admitted to Rollins College based on TOEFL score.
Mathematical Thinking: Responsible citizens make decisions that shape their lives, their society, and the world. Decision-making requires a variety of skills that will be strengthened as students complete a Mathematical Thinking competency course. Students will develop and sharpen their deductive reasoning and critical-thinking skills, enabling them to construct and articulate sound, precise, and convincing arguments and to evaluate the arguments of others. They will build and study mathematical and/or statistical models for real-world phenomena, and they will hone their ability to make estimates, develop the skills needed to draw well-founded conclusions and make reliable predictions. Students will demonstrate mastery of these skills as they apply to issues they will encounter in their subsequent course work, career, and daily life.
Mathematical thinking competency courses may be double-counted toward a major. Students will complete this requirement by earning a C- or better in any Rollins course that carries the mathematical thinking competency designation; earning a C- or better in an approved Rollins transfer course, achieving an AP Statistics exam score of 4 or 5, achieving an AP Calculus exam (A/B or B/C) score of 4 or 5, or achieving an IB Mathematics exam score of 4 or better.
Health and Wellness:
Personal health decisions are critical examples of people assimilating, understanding, and applying academic knowledge. In Health and Wellness courses students will learn to apply basic scientific, sociological and psychological constructs to everyday decisions that impact personal health. They will learn to discern facts from anecdotal stories in order to form intelligent models of behavior. Students will demonstrate mastery of these skills by assessing, on an individual basis, their own fitness level and lifestyle decisions and then analyzing those decisions using research-based models. This analysis will lead to an understanding of what constitutes a balanced and healthy lifestyle.
Students will complete this requirement by 1) earning a C- or better in any Rollins course that carries the Health and Wellness competency designation or earning a C- or better in an approved Rollins transfer course and 2) completing two (2) non-credit-bearing PEA requirements or participating in varsity sports for at least two years. Students may receive a medical exemption for the PEA requirement with appropriate documentation.
To be eligible for a Bachelor of Arts degree, students must complete five (5) courses from one (1) specific Neighborhood (see descriptions below). Neighborhood courses are appropriately designated in the Course Schedule published each semester by the Office of Student Records.
Students may take one (1) neighborhood course from another neighborhood, excepting the neighborhood practicum, which must be taken in their neighborhood. Students may double-count one (1) neighborhood course toward their major.
Students may complete neighborhood courses and thus advance in the neighborhood by achieving a C- or better in neighborhood courses. The Director of rFLA may approve courses taken at regionally accredited institutions of higher education other than Rollins for neighborhood credit.
Students will select their neighborhood during the fall semester of their first year. In the spring of their first year they will take their first neighborhood class at the 100-level. Subsequently, students must take three (3) classes at the intermediate level, with at least one (1) class at the 150-level and 1 (one) class at the 200-level. To complete the neighborhood, students must take the neighborhood practicum at the 300-level. All competencies must be completed BEFORE the student enrolls in the practicum.
How do people, cultures, and environments change when different worlds and worldviews encounter and interact with one another? Is every corner of the earth destined to look the same, or is it possible to resist the homogenizing forces of globalization? The increasing emphasis on global integration has catapulted these longstanding questions to the forefront of contemporary discussions about the world and our place within it. This neighborhood encourages students to examine the scientific, artistic, literary, cultural and socioeconomic effects of our evolving world. Topics of inquiry and exploration include hybridity and diversity in religion, music, and philosophy; the effects of globalization on human, animal, and plant development; and the social, political and cultural ramifications caused by migrations of people around the world.
Black holes. Mona Lisa's smile. Atlantis. Houdini. The Holy Grail. How to live forever. Why he/she won't return my calls. At the same time as we find comfort in all that we know, believe, and hold to be true, we instinctively are propelled forward by the quest for knowledge of that which eludes us. This neighborhood invites students to explore and interrogate what we do not know about our world, our community, our friends and families, and ourselves. Through a diverse array of courses, students will have the privilege of examining all kinds of mysteries ranging from artistic marvels and scientific wonders to political and cultural blind spots and literary whodunits in order to acquire the skills and experience necessary to unlock the enduring mysteries of the universe or at least of contemporary college life.
Our identities from our fingerprints and Facebook profile to our family trees fundamentally shape the ways that we think about, feel, and interact with the world. This neighborhood provides students with the opportunity to put themselves under the microscope (literally and figuratively!) by exploring the diverse components that factor into the construction of the self. Learning how we define our ethnic, gendered, religious and cultural identities will, in turn, open up new ways of thinking about and engaging with the larger social, economic, political, and ecological networks of which we all are part. As we take the path toward global citizenship, the following questions will serve as our guide: What does it mean to be human? Where do I belong? What is a family? What can I do to make a positive impact on the world, and how?
Global progress relies on people who are creative, innovative, and flexible. This neighborhood will prepare students to develop these essential attributes by teaching them how to explore and enhance their creative processes. Students who choose this neighborhood will be challenged to experiment with and in their world by testing its boundaries, pushing conventions, and devising new ways of thinking and doing things in this rapidly changing world. Courses will invite students to study the history of innovative thought, belief and practice across the centuries as well as identify opportunities for development and change in their own local and global communities. Through the process of learning what a change maker is and does, students will acquire the knowledge and skillsets to become ones themselves.
Students entering Rollins with an AA degree from a Florida institution will not have to complete any rFLA requirements except the RCC.
Students entering Rollins with less than thirty (30) transferred credit hours must complete the entire rFLA curriculum.
Students entering Rollins with thirty (30) or more transferred credit hours BUT without an AA degree must take four (4) courses: a transfer RCC, which will also count as their 100-level neighborhood class; one (1) 150 and one (1) 200-level neighborhood class; and the neighborhood practicum (300-level) class. They must fulfill the competency requirements either with transfer credits or Rollins courses. The Director of rFLA may approve courses taken at regionally accredited institutions of higher education other than Rollins for neighborhood credit.
Students must satisfactorily fulfill the requirements of an established major or the plan of study of a self-designed major. Department Chairs or Program Coordinators must approve course substitutions within the major. In addition, students must earn a minimum grade point average of 2.00 ('C') in the courses approved for the major as accepted on the senior audit.
Selecting a major does not imply a career choice. Concentration in a major field of study is designed to give students command of the content and methods of one discipline or field, acquaintance with recognized authorities in the field, and general competence in dealing with courses of research or analysis. A declaration of major must be filed in the Office of Student Records prior to registration for the junior year. Students who do not file declarations of major will not be allowed to register for subsequent terms.
Majors are noted on a student's official academic transcript, but not on the diploma.
HONORS IN THE MAJOR FIELD
Honors in the Major Field provides for independent research or special study during the senior year under the supervision of a three-member committee in the student's major. To be eligible for Honors in the Major Field, students must:
Self-Designed Majors are intended for disciplined and highly motivated students who are clearly focused in their interests. These majors reflect the College's recognition that not every student's area of special interest will always fall neatly within the bounds of a single discipline as traditionally defined.
The Self-Designed Major is not intended as a way for a student to avoid the intellectual focus and methodological rigor required in the normal departmental major or to avoid certain difficult courses within majors. It should not be used to concentrate work in a narrowly preprofessional way. On the contrary, by successfully completing the courses and integrative research project that constitute the Self-Designed Major, the student is expected to achieve a depth of focused reflection and understanding at least comparable to that of a traditional major.
Guidelines for Submission of a Self-Designed Major Proposal
2. The proposal must include the names of three faculty members willing to serve on the senior research project committee. The faculty must represent the three disciplines represented in the major. The student must select a director, from among these three, who works with the student and the other committee members in preparing the proposal. The director also serves as an advocate in the approval process. Once the proposal has been approved, the director serves as the student's academic advisor, monitors the student's progress in completing the major, and chairs the committee which reviews the senior research project.
3. The proposed major program must have a coherent theme or topic that integrates at least three traditional disciplines. It must be different enough from a regular major that some combination of major and minor would not substantially achieve the same result. The student must include a rationale for choosing a self-designed major rather than a conventional major.
4. The proposal must include a list of courses, all related to and converging on the theme of the proposed major, from at least three disciplines.
5. The major must include a two-term, 8-semester-hour independent research project, (or combination of a 4-semester-hour upper-level seminar and a one-term, 4-semester-hour research project) integrating the major, to be completed in the senior year
6. The program must be at least sixty-four (64) semester hours (including the senior project) in length, of which thirty-two (32) semester hours must be at the 300 level or above
The proposal must be submitted to the Associate Dean of Arts & Sciences for approval prior to March 1 of the sophomore year. The Associate Dean then submits the proposal to the Academic Affairs Committee for final approval. An Amendment Form must be submitted to approve any changes from the original proposal.
Students who declare a minor must fulfill satisfactorily the requirements of that minor as specified by the department or program, and must achieve a minimum academic average of a 2.00 ('C') for all courses taken to fulfill the minor. Minors normally involve twenty-four (24) to thirty-two (32) semester hours of study. As with majors, minors are noted on a student's official academic transcript, but not on the diploma.
Disciplinary minors are offered in conjunction with most of the majors in Arts and Sciences, plus communication, dance, German, Russian, teacher certification, and writing. Disciplinary minors are not offered in biochemistry/molecular biology, critical media and cultural studies, elementary education, international relations, or marine biology.
Interdisciplinary minors involve courses from more than one discipline or major. Interdisciplinary minors are offered in African/African-American studies, archaeology, Australian studies, classical studies, film studies, global health, Jewish studies, Middle Eastern and North African studies, neuroscience, sustainable development and the environment, women's studies, and writing.
A student may declare more than one minor but may not have a minor and major in the same discipline. Some interdisciplinary minors may require different course sequences for students from different majors.
If students are enrolled in more than one major or minor, they may double count no more than half the number of courses in the smaller program. If the smaller program requires an odd number of courses, the student may round up. No course may be counted for more than two programs.
Students may also elect to complete sequences of courses identified as practical concentrations. Practical concentrations normally involve sixteen (16) to twenty-four (24) semester hours of study in at least two different disciplines, plus an internship. Practical concentrations both identify courses that are related in meaningful ways to specific vocational opportunities and make evident the connections among courses in different disciplines. Practical concentrations may require different course sequences for students, depending on their major.
Practical concentrations are offered on an 'as available' basis. Availability depends on the presence or absence of specific faculty. The College seeks to offer practical concentrations that will benefit its students, but does not guarantee that a particular practical concentration can be completed in each and every year. As with majors and minors, practical concentrations are noted on the student's academic transcript, but not on the diploma.